Whether as displaced people or labor migrants, millions of Africans join the desperate, massive population movements across national boundaries on the African continent and to the West.
In search of livelihood, they often face rejection and victimization within new nations struggling with declining economies and population pressure.
The world was shocked by the spectacle of thousands of Ghanaian workers and their families literally fleeing for their lives from Nigeria in February Yet this was not an isolated occurrence - others are merely less publicized.
Over forty illegal Ghanaian migrants in the Ivory Coast suffocated to death when caught and locked up in a tiny room in Abidjan; in Paris, France, local municipal authorities bulldozed the shanties of Malian and Senegalese laborers and street cleaners to win the votes of city dwellers who objected to the presence of immigrant workers. This victimization of migrant and immigrant laborers has national and global implications. African migrant and immigrant workers, like European "guest-workers" and illegal migrants from Latin America and the Caribbean to the United States, are now part of a global movement of poor people attempting to improve their lives.
These are the most recent victims in the long history of forced or induced labor movement of millions of persons. Most of these people have been "pushed out" as a result of internal, usually ethnic, conflicts exacerbated by international alliances or capitalist development. For the most part, African economies have remained underdeveloped and dependent on Western capitalism.
The large-scale modern migrations of workers in West Africa are The new opportunities and demands, together with the stresses and incompatibilities to which the far-reaching technical, economic and political changes have given rise, extend into every field, presenting urgent problems of internal and external policy, of administration and education with which the governments of the countries of West Africa are having to grapple. Contemporary analyses of problems which confront refugees and labor migrants are scarce.
Samir Amin asserts that labor migration has generally been bad for individual migrants, detrimental to the economy of Africa as a whole, and ultimately reinforces the dependency of Africa on Western nations. Elliot Berg, on the other hand, has viewed labor migration as the best adaptation that underdeveloped but often resource-rich African regions can make to the global economy.
He and a number of other scholars feel that migration benefits both labor-exporting regions and recipient ones, and that labor migration will continue until fundamental economic changes overtake the African continent. It cannot be denied, however, that migration is partially responsible for the low productive levels in rural areas. Both Amin and Berg present serious arguments. The dilemma which most African states face in dealing with migration has, however, additional and deeper ramifications.
African leaders must manage independent states whose populations came to depend upon massive labor migration and emigration during the colonial period. In colonial Upper Volta and Mali, where agricultural development and cash were scarce, rural men often migrated into the Gold Coast or Ivory Coast in search of jobs as farm laborers, porters and construction workers; in southern Africa, Thonga, Xhosa and Swazi men often left wives on devastated rural farms to search for work in the mines.
Recently African leaders have tried to curb migration to urban areas by attempting to induce peasants to remain in rural areas to produce essential foodstuffs. However, tight international markets and low prices, as well as the need to channel agricultural profits toward urban and national development, have frustrated rural growth. The flow of migrants across borders has increased, creating local, national, and intra- and now inter-continental problems. Except for bureaucrats in the large complex states of West Africa, or traders along the East African coast, Africans in the pre-colonial period seldom worked outside of their local communities.
However, large-scale movements did take place; horticulturalists shifted to fresh land on which to practice slash-and-burn cultivation and pastoral groups moved their herds across the landscape. These movements involved whole families and communities, not individuals.The Oxford Dictionary  is similar but also includes the following definition:.
In the Islamic sense when talking about migration, and within the context of this document, almost all the above definitions are included. It may be a geographical migration, from a country where one is restricted from practicing their Islamic rituals, for example, to one where one can. But it also may be a non-geographical migration such as the definition given in the Oxford Dictionary and the example of computing. Whoso emigrates in the way of God will find in the earth many refuges and plenty; whoso goes forth from his house an emigrant to God and His Messenger, and then death overtakes him, his wage shall have fallen on God; surely God is All-forgiving, All-compassionate.
The second — is that of the hereafter and spiritual benefits of migration. It had such a significant impact that its effects extended from the prophetic era towards the lives of Muslims in every age and in every place. His traditions are not limited in its applications upon Muslims in the beginning stages of the Islamic world, but rather, an example and a role model to us today and for the future, and this is no different. What resulted from the migration of the prophet] is a practical example for us in todays world, since it is indeed the Final Message and he is the best of role models.
History describes two major geographical migrations that took place during the time of the Prophet]. One from Mecca to Habasha and the other from Mecca to the holy city of Medina. This does not mean there is no longer the need to migrate — but rather, the subject of the need to migrate from Mecca to Medina has now ended.
Wherever there are circumstances that reflect the scenario in which Muslims found themselves in while in Mecca, however, and under the governance of polytheists, the issue of migration re-opens.
Non-geographical migrations also occurred.
Therefore, the applications extend beyond a geographical migration. It has meanings and applications into our etiquettes, our theological beliefs, which can be personified in the state of a person who develops and morphs from one form into another, better form.
From a state of ignorance and blindness in all aspects of life. To one of understanding of the reality of life and what awaits mankind after the worldly life. The application of what can be learnt from the migration can be applied to our current modern day life just as it was applied at the beginning of Islam, and by those who live in both Islamic and Non-Islamic countries. The migration was not only a material migration from one land to another, but it is also a moral migration from one state to another, from a state of weakness to one of strength, from a state of minority to a state of a majority, from a state of differentiation to a state of unity, from a state of stagnation to a state of development, and most importantly, from a state of ignorance with regards to our obligations and responsibilities to one of knowledge and awareness.
The meaning of migration in the context in which we are focusing on is the move from non-Islamic countries to Islamic countries, and this is the materialistic migration, but the spiritual and moral migration is to move oneself Islamicly from one stage to another so that the second stage is one that is better than the first, for which the content discussed is applicable.
Previous Next. About the Author: S. Inhe completed his Bachelors course at Al Mustafa University. Also a practicing pharmacist Monash University, Melbourne since in the health industry in Australia. Practical Islam is the desired goal and outcome for the whole family — real, physical and spiritual movements towards our final destination, and is the main focus of the site. Related Posts. Is the West the paradise that we are truly seeking?
Fallacies — Part 2.The migration pattern—families that have failed elsewhere and come here for a last chance—becomes clear quickly enough. And more are on the way in a migration likely to continue for months. The habitat requirements of elk and their speed of migration are probably the same today as at the end of the Pleistocene.
As there are types of forces or causes giving rise to migrationthere are likewise types of migration. From all I could hear the migration appears to have spent itself at this spot.
On the fall migration it visits the coast of northwestern Alaska frequently, perhaps regularly, and often commonly.
But the vital facts touching the pioneers of Iowa are not of migration and settlement. The Tsars had new reasons for opposing the migration of the peasants and new means for preventing it. An everyday activity is one you do every day.
Thanks, English. Practice using "everyday," one word, and "every day," two words, in this fun quiz with … everyday example sentences! See migrate-ion.
Words nearby migration mignonnemigrainemigrantmigratemigrating abscessmigrationmigration inhibition testmigratorymigratory locustmigueletmiha. Words related to migration flighttransferjourneyshiftexodusmovementdiasporatrekmovepassagehegira. Will Texas Stay Texan? Ruben Navarrette Jr. The Land's End W. History of the Constitutions of Iowa Benjamin F. Russia Donald Mackenzie Wallace. Derived forms of migration migrationaladjective.
The moving from place to place, as of disease symptoms. The movement of a tooth or teeth out of normal position.
The movement of one or more atoms from one position to another within a molecule. The movement of ions between electrodes during electrolysis. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.To save this word, you'll need to log in. Send us feedback. See more words from the same year From the Editors at Merriam-Webster. On 'Caravan' and Words for People in On 'Caravan' and Words for People in Movement A cavalcade of ways to describe a group in transit Dictionary Entries near migration migrate migratetic migratetics migration migrationist migration route migrative.
Accessed 12 Apr. Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for migration migration. Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible. Test Your Vocabulary Name that Thing: Flower Edition Name that flower hyacinth amaryllis chrysanthemum hydrangea Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free!
And who put it there, anyway? What's with his feathered cap? Literally How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts. Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice? One month at a time. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Build a chain of words by adding one letter at a time. Login or Register.
Save Word. Log In. Definition of migration. Keep scrolling for more.To save this word, you'll need to log in.
Send us feedback. See more words from the same year From the Editors at Merriam-Webster.
On 'Caravan' and Words for People in On 'Caravan' and Words for People in Movement A cavalcade of ways to describe a group in transit Dictionary Entries near migration migrate migratetic migratetics migration migrationist migration route migrative. Accessed 12 Apr. Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for migration migration. Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible. Test Your Vocabulary Name that Thing: Flower Edition Name that flower hydrangea chrysanthemum hyacinth amaryllis Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words?
Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! And who put it there, anyway? What's with his feathered cap? Literally How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts. Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice? One month at a time. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words?
Definition of “Migration”
Build a chain of words by adding one letter at a time. Login or Register. Save Word. Log In. Definition of migration.
The Great Migration
Keep scrolling for more. Examples of migration in a Sentence Recent Examples on the Web Its magnitude was further multiplied by the free trade and free migration and free press that the president and his advisers Peter Navarro and Stephen Miller so disdain.
First Known Use of migration circain the meaning defined above. Learn More about migration. Time Traveler for migration The first known use of migration was circa See more words from the same year. From the Editors at Merriam-Webster. Dictionary Entries near migration migrate migratetic migratetics migration migrationist migration route migrative See More Nearby Entries.
More Definitions for migration. Kids Definition of migration. Comments on migration What made you want to look up migration? Get Word of the Day daily email!Since the earliest times, humanity has been on the move. Some people move in search of work or economic opportunities, to join family, or to study. Others move to escape conflict, persecution, terrorism, or human rights violations. Still others move in response to the adverse effects of climate change, natural disasters, or other environmental factors.
Today, more people than ever live in a country other than the one in which they were born. International migrants comprise 3. While many individuals migrate out of choice, many others migrate out of necessity. The number of globally forcibly displaced people topped 70 million for the first time in UNHCR's almost 70 year history at the end of This number includes almost 26 million refugees, 3.
The Agenda for Sustainable Development recognizes for the first time the contribution of migration to sustainable development. The Agenda's core principle is to "leave no one behind," not even migrants. Other targets directly related to migration mention trafficking, remittances, international student mobility and more. Moreover, migration is indirectly relevant to many more cross-cutting targets. Established inIOM is the leading inter-governmental organization in the field of migration.
IOM works to ensure the orderly and humane management of migration, to promote international cooperation on migration issues, to assist in the search for practical solutions to migration problems and to provide humanitarian assistance to migrants in need, including refugees and internally displaced people.
Inthe number of international migrants worldwide — people residing in a country other than their country of birth — reached million from million in Female migrants constituted 48 per cent of this international migrant stock. There are an estimated 38 million migrant children, three out of four international migrants are of working age, meaning between 20 and 64 years old.
It can be a challenge to make sense of available migration data, as this is often scattered across different organisations and agencies, and not easily comparable.
The site presents migration data from diverse sources and aims to help policy makers, national statistical officers, journalists and the general public interested in migration to navigate the increasingly complex landscape of migration data. Large-scale movements of refugees and migrants affect all UN Member States and they require closer cooperation and responsibility-sharing. Inthe UN General Assembly convened a high-level plenary meeting on addressing large movements of refugees and migrants.
The New York Declaration acknowledges the positive contribution of migrants to sustainable and inclusive development, and commits to protecting the safety, dignity and human rights and fundamental freedoms of all migrants, regardless of their migratory status.
The GCM covers diverse issues such as strengthening labour rights for migrant workers, improving migration data as a basis for evidence-based policies, saving lives and establishing international efforts on missing migrants, and many others. The implementation of the GCM will represent progress in governing migration in a way that increases its benefits for individuals, communities and countries, and reduces its risks for all. Welcome to the United Nations. Toggle navigation Language:.
Home Global Issues Migration Migration. Migrant women at work in the "Hopeful Hands" sewing factory started by two Iraqi women in Canada. Who is a migrant?Stopping Africa’s Migrants - Bigger Than Five
Migrants and the SDGs The Agenda for Sustainable Development recognizes for the first time the contribution of migration to sustainable development. Data on migration Inthe number of international migrants worldwide — people residing in a country other than their country of birth — reached million from million in Global Action Large-scale movements of refugees and migrants affect all UN Member States and they require closer cooperation and responsibility-sharing.Great Migrationin U.
At the turn of the 20th century, the vast majority of black Americans lived in the Southern states. From toduring this Great Migration, it is estimated that some six million black Southerners relocated to urban areas in the North and West. The Great Migration was the movement of some six million African Americans from rural areas of the Southern states of the United States to urban areas in the Northern states between and It occurred in two waves, basically before and after the Great Depression.
At the beginning of the 20th century, 90 percent of black Americans lived in the South. By nearly half of all African Americans lived in Northern cities. Many African Americans in the South found themselves trapped in sharecropping jobs and other forms of debt peonage with no hope of improvement in their circumstances. Jim Crow laws kept them in an inferior position relative to white people, and they were denied political rights. There were more jobs available in the Northand, though racism was rampant, racial segregation was not mandated there.
They embarked on the Great Migration seeking economic and social opportunity. The greater economic and educational opportunities led to an explosion of artistic expression in music and literature. Migrants and their children created the Harlem Renaissancechanged the sound of the blues music that they brought north with them, desegregated sports, and became involved in politics.
The Great Migration arguably was a factor leading to the American civil rights movement. The massive stream of European emigration to the United Stateswhich had begun in the late 19th century and waned during World War Islowed to a trickle with immigration reform in the s.
As a result, urban industries were faced with labour shortages. A huge internal population shift among African Americans addressed these shortfalls, particularly during the World Wars, when defense industries required more unskilled labour. Although the Great Migration slowed during the Great Depressionit surged again after World War IIwhen rates of migration were high for several decades.
With advertisements for housing and employment and firsthand stories of newfound success in the North, the Chicago Defenderfor example, became one of the leading promoters of the Great Migration. Seeking better civil and economic opportunities, many blacks were not wholly able to escape racism by migrating to the North, where African Americans were segregated into ghettos and urban life introduced new obstacles.
Great Migration. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Great Migration African-American history. Top Questions. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription.
Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Some 1. Once again, serious housing shortages and job competition led to increased tension between blacks and whites.
Race riots broke out; the worst occurred in…. In response, landowners employed armed riders to supervise and discipline the farmers working on their land.